Історія українського перекладознавства XX сторіччя - Тарас Шмігер 2009

Summary. A History of Ukrainian Translation Studies in the 20th Century

The book highlights the main concepts, issues and periods of 20th century Translation Studies in Ukraine. This is the first exhaustive study of the contributions of Ukrainian researchers to the development of Translation Studies, a many-sided analysis of the topics discussed and of the methods applied. An attempt has also been made at defining Ukrainian Translation Studies and developing criteria for its periodization. The book consists of an introduction, four chapters, conclusions and a list of references.

The Introduction discusses the methods of historiographic study, criteria and periodization of 20th century Ukrainian Translation Studies and explores translation research in Ukraine during the first decades of the 20th century. The history of Ukrainian Translation Studies surveys the research performed by Ukrainian scholars in and beyond Ukraine covering translation theory, history, criticism and didactics within the framework of the unitary Ukrainian academic tradition. The concept of ‘Ukrainian scholar’ also includes researchers of other nationalities who worked in Ukraine within the same research tradition. It is shown that, on the basis of literary, academic, political, social, cultural, economic criteria, 20th century Ukrainian Translation Studies can be divided into four periods:

1. The critical and theoretical period (early 20th century up to WW1) is characterized by the search for the foundations of translation theory, its system of terms and its methods of analysis within the general framework of Literary Studies.

2. The establishment of Translation Studies as a scholarly and academic discipline in Ukraine (from the end of WW1 to the end of WW2) provides the systematization and theoretization of the scholarship performed under the influence of higher educational and research institutions.

3. The development of Ukrainian Translation Studies within the context of the Soviet Union (late 1940s — early 1970s) posits Ukrainian research as a part of the Soviet school of Translation Studies when scholarly discourse focused on literalism and general methodological prerequisites.

4. The transformation of Translation Studies into an interdisciplinary field of scholarship (mid. 1970s till the present time) expands the methods and topics of translation analysis by applying developments in psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics, cultural studies etc.

At the turn of the 20th century the impulse for developing a modem theory of translation came from literary reviewers interested in the poetic and social aspects of translation. With remarkable insight, I. Franko pinpointed the main problems of Translation Studies Analysis (its interpretational and stylistic orientation), translation theory and history (the nation-shaping role of translation) and in many respects marked out the lines along which future research would proceed (Chapter I).

Chapter 2 traces the formation of translation theory in interwar Ukraine. The years following the 1917 Revolution saw a surge in translation activity and research. The country’s best scholars completed great work, raising translation research to a new level. In an effort that ran parallel to the search for the components of a literary text undertaken by M. Zerov, B. Yakubs’kyi and H. Mayfet, attempts were made by H. Ivanytsia and Ivan Kulyk to develop a theory of translation interpretation and manipulation.

Great progress in translation theory is evident in the translation essence discussion involving the leading Translation Studies researchers V. Derzhavyn, O. FinkeT and H. Mayfet. M. Zerov’s conception proved invaluable not only in providing a framework for developing translation history as an academic discipline, but also in guiding the practice of verse translation and the description of the translator’s personality. M. Zerov shaped translation history as a distinct discipline, while O. Finkel’ advanced the linguostylistic theory of translation. Among the most important achievements by West Ukrainian scholars — Ye. Malaniuk, L. Lutsiv, B. Lepkyi, M. Rudnyts’kyi — during this period were studies of translation history, Bible translation, verse translation and ideology in translation. A great contribution was made by the East Ukrainian emigre scholars I. Ohiyenko, V. Koroliv-Staryi, P. Zaytsev, O. Burghardt. These research papers constitute a rightful part of all-Ukrainian scholarship.

Chapter 3 is devoted to translation research from the late 1940s till the early 1970s. The late 1940s saw a revival of translation reviews, showing an interest in many current issues of translation theory, placing priority on Slavonic literary communication. Since the 1950s, the range of topics had grown wider, and research into translation history was stimulated by H. Kochur’s translation and research activities as well as by literary magazines, esp. «Vsesvit». It is also manifested in the publication of numerous bibliographical guides containing data about translations in Ukrainian literature. This period witnessed theoretical investigations into translation within a linguistic framework, carried out by Ye. Starynkevych and partially M. RyTs’kyi. O. Kundzich’s and S. Kovhaniuk’s theory of poetic language in prose translation strove from the outset for semantic exactitude and displayed a resistance to the Russification policy of the Soviet government. The Russian-Ukrainian translationese was severely criticized.

The multinational nature of the Soviet Union contributed much to the growing demand for translation research in that time. The Soviet school of Translation Studies had ontologically stemmed from different national schools of thought, and Ukrainian researchers occupied a particular place in it. A breakthrough was made by V. Koptilov who investigated key theoretical problems (basic terms and concepts of Translation Studies, translation multiplicity, interpretation, methods of Translation Studies analysis).

Chapter 4 summarizes the contribution to Ukrainian Translation Studies made by scholars in the last two decades of the 20th century. The linguistic theory of translation developed alongside general linguistics, contrastive linguistics, sociolinguistics, text linguistics and other areas of linguistic research. The broad concept of macrolinguistics allowed for the extensive use of linguistic methods to describe the formal, semantic and cognitive aspects of translation. The years following Ukrainian Independence (1991) radically changed the nature of translation practice and research in general. The abolition of censorship has made some research activities possible which had previously been regarded as inadmissible on ideological grounds, like considerations of the nation-shaping role of translation as well as some historical issues and sci-tech translation. The 1990s methodological basis owes much of its agenda to the assumptions and research of the previous decade, except lingual/social and cultural studies.

Тарас Шмігер народився 4 жовтня 1980 р. у Львові. Закінчив львівський національний університет ім. Івана Франка (2002), а згодом аспірантуру (2006). Кандидат філологічних наук (2008). Член Наукового товариства ім. Шевченка. Працює на кафедрі перекладознавства і контрастивноі' лінгвістики ім. Григорія Кочура Франкового університету у Львові. Стипендіат кабінету міністрів України (2006-2008). Наукові інтереси: перекладознавство, когнітивна лінгвістика, культурологія. Друкується у фаховій періодиці України та закордону (зокрема, у Польщі, Словаччині, США). лауреат конкурсу досліджень видавництва «Смолоскип».

«Актуальність монографії про українське перекладознавство XX віку не викликає ніяких сумнівів, зокрема, якщо врахувати, що з’явилося у нас чимало невігласів, які (чи то з власного безголов’я, чи на догоду комусь) намагаються ствердити, що й перекладацької школи в Україні ніколи не було, й успіхи нашого перекладацтва в найкращих випадках спорадичні. Адже найлегше подолати, підкорити той нарід, якого вдалося поступово, підступно переконати, що в його культурі нічого й не існувало».

На нашому каналі стартував марафон підготовки до ЗНО з української літератури. В рамках якого ми кожного дня будем викладати відео з новим твором. Підписуйтесь на наш канал та приєднуйтесь до марафону.